Smart-Transportation-Paasmer-IoT-Platform

Smart Transportation and IoT

ManagementTeamMouli1

Srinidhi Murthy

Thanks to laptops and smartphones, human beings are able to stay connected to the Internet more often that ever before, but yet there are still some notable dead spots, particularly in cars, buses, and trains. Anyone with a daily commute can speak to lapses in coverage on the subway or when going through a tunnel.

But the Internet of Things is looking to change all that and keep people connected at every moment of every day. Connected cars, buses, trains, and even planes will allow people to have a stable Internet connection at almost all times.

And the transformation won’t stop there, as the IoT will make transportation itself more efficient and help us get from place to place more quickly.

A new term called as “Internet of Transportation” has been coined and it will create the new era of connected transportation and change how we travel.

With Internet of Transportation assets we can:

  • Reduce congestion by monitoring and controlling traffic lights.
  • Send alerts to drivers and emergency responders on trip conditions, then offer alternative routes.
  • Reduce fuel consumption and vehicle emissions.
  • Provide smart parking solutions that identify and communicate available spaces.
  • Improve safety for motorists, pedestrians, and bicyclists.
  • Identify structural issues of bridges, roadways, and tunnels.
  • Provide smart lighting and security monitoring for city streets.

Let’s look at some of the use cases of Smart Transportation and how they are implemented.

Fleet Management:
Fleet telematics solutions help businesses, transportation carriers, and governments improve economics, safety, and compliance by intelligently monitoring and controlling their vehicles.

Specific or Generic Smart Applications gather and analyze data from on-board instrumentation and GPS sensors to track vehicle status and location, optimize routing, and monitor driver and equipment performance and productivity.

Connected Cars:

Smart-Transportation-1-Paasmer
In the last few years, connected cars or smart cars have surged in popularity thanks to the IoT. Today, car companies are connecting their vehicles in two manners: embedded and tethered. Embedded cars employ a built-in antenna and chipset, while tethered connections make use of hardware to let drivers connect to their cars through their smartphones.

On top of this, app integration is becoming more and more standard in the car of today. Google Maps and other navigation systems have started to replace built-in GPS systems in dashboards.

Apps such as GasBuddy show the driver where he or she can locate the cheapest fuel in their area. And music apps such as Spotify have started to away the need for traditional and satellite radio.

Transport Logistics:

Smart-Transportation-2-Paasmer

Intelligent transport logistics solutions help long-haul cargo operators and last-mile delivery providers efficiently manage the transportation and distribution of freight and merchandise.

Smart applications gather and analyze data from onboard sensors to track containers and packages, and to monitor environmental conditions, ensuring goods arrive on time, at the right place, intact.

Traffic and Parking Management:

Smart-Transportation-3-min

Smart-Transportation-Paasmer

Integrated Traffic and Parking Management Systems can reduce congestion and save fuel in Business Districts and City Centers. Sensors built into Parking Meters can indicate to a server when a parking slot becomes available. A car User with a Smart Phone App can request to find a parking space within a designated radius based on the GPS location and the server responds with the available parking spaces. This saves fuel and congestion caused by Simply using visual parking search methods.

Traffic Management systems can use sensors, cameras, to find out intersection that has become congested and Use smart algorithms to determine which direction the traffic needs to be moving too quickly clear congestion. It can also act as an Emergency response systems in case of accidents or emergencies.

PAASMER:
Paasmer is an IoT Platform As A Service which can connect any of your IoT devices to the the Paasmer Platform allow for control, visualization and Analytics of Data that are received from the Sensors.

What can PAASMER do for Smart Transportation:
PAASMER is a flexible, economical and easy way to connect your IoT devices and it works on a various range of Hardware devices that are available off the shelf. Using Paasmer Building POC for Smart Transportation would be most reliable, fast and economical. Please do visit us at paasmer.co for more details.

IoT Energy

IOT in Renewable Energy – Challenges and Solutions

Sridhar krishnan

Sridhar krishnan

Renewable energy business is continuing to grow all over the world as the entire world is looking for clean and alternative energy source to control the pollution.

IOT solutions are helping this business to improve operational excellence, efficiency, cut cost, fix issues proactively, increase productivity and profitability. The effective use of IOT is the differentiator among the competitors. Real-time analytics can make a significant difference to act quickly to identify and fix issues and improve operational excellence. The challenge in the system is the amount of data being collected from the power sources, it is huge. This challenge is common for both wind and solar energy systems where the wind turbines and solar panels are many in number and are spread across various places. As the amount of data being generated is huge from these sources, the cost of sending these data to the cloud and using big data infrastructure are increasing the overall cost of operations. And it impacts the network latency and performance.

Wind energy
In a large Wind energy farm, the IOT system is collecting data from sensors that includes Acceleration, Temperature and Vibration data from turbines. These data need to be collected and analyzed in real-time or near real-time for quick analysis and actionable insights for performance optimization to increase productivity and predictive maintenance to avoid downtime.

The challenge with this IOT system is transferring huge data from various locations in real-time to a central location to run queries on the data and perform analytics. This makes the cost of data transfer much higher than the benefits it is giving.

Solar Energy
In solar energy infrastructures, the essential data that can be collected from the sensors by IOT system includes Irradiance (Solar panel tilt angle), wind factors. Ambient temperature and location. This data can be used for performing analytics, compute predictive algorithm, calculate the energy that is being generated in all the connected solar energy system, analysis of energy generation pattern, Fault/ Problem detection and Real-time visualization of the solar systems. The data need to be collected and analyzed in real-time

Like IOT system for wind energy, the challenge of transferring huge data in real-time to cloud exists in this IOT system also as the size of the data from each Solar unit is huge.

Decentralization – Edge analytics

Decentralization of data storage, processing and analytics can solve the problem of sending huge data to the centralized cloud. Ability to run queries at any given time can be achieved by Edge analytics. The data generated from the solar panels or wind turbines can be filtered at the edge and send only the meaningful data to the cloud to run queries for analytics, this will help to reduce the data transfer cost. Real-time and post-mortem analytics can also be done completely in Edge gateway or with cloud analytics whichever is the best suitable and cost effective for the specific renewable energy use case.

So, the existing challenges in IOT systems of renewable energy can be handled by implementing a decentralized IOT solution with data filtering, processing, and analytics done in Edge side of the IOT solution.

Paasmer_platform_sdk

Build Your IoT Solution using PAASMER SDK

ManagementTeamMouli1

Srinidhi Murthy

An IOT device is a hardware that connects with various sensors in the enterprises or industries, collects data, preprocess, send them to cloud hosted IOT platform or an IOT application for further analysis and interpretation to present them for decision making or feed them for process efficiency and production improvement. The IOT devices should be developed with the support for IOT communication standards to communicate with different kinds of sensors in the industry and IOT devices should be communicating with each other.

An industry who wants to implement the IOT solution in their company may need to develop different kinds of IOT devices to collect data from various sensors from various locations. It is a time consuming for any IOT solution provider or IOT device developers to develop a new IOT device/solution quickly with support for various kinds of connectivity standards from the scratch.

Once the devices are developed and deployed, the IOT solution should provide a management console to view their devices, the sensors connected to devices and the data collected from them in an easily understandable format. The user who has the authority to manage the IOT devices to view the data and control the devices should be provided with easy to use user interfaces in web UI or smartphone Apps to control the devices. Developing such a management console from the scratch is time-consuming.

An IOT development platform with software development kits to provide APIs to develop IOT devices using commonly used open source IOT hardware can enable IOT solution developers, IOT device developers, and IOT consultants to quickly develop and implement IOT solutions with different kinds of IOT devices.

The IOT platform can also provide a management console to manage all the IOT devices, sensors and their data presented in a user editable formats with control options. The platform can be hosted in in-premises and(or) in the cloud and can connect with the various IOT applications analytical and management applications. This can enable developers to develop value-added IOT solutions quickly.

The software development kits provided in IOT development platform can also provide APIs to quickly develop security layer of IOT solution like TOR and Blockchain.

PAASMER SDK
It enables you to do Design, Connect and Analyze your data using PAASMER’s IOT platform.

Design:
PAASMER’s SDK allows you to connect any sensors to existing IOT boards in the market like Raspberry Pi, Node MCU, and many other IOT boards. The PAASMER platform is hardware agnostic. The trial build will provide support for connecting sensors to RPi and Node MCU and supports languages like C and Python.

Connect:
PAASMER SDK enables easy connectivity of your IOT devices to PAASMER cloud. The SDK allows communication of all the IOT devices with the PAASMER cloud. It works with all the popular platforms and supports multiple communication protocols. The trial version will support the Wi-Fi method of communication using MQTT protocol and RESTFUL APIs. The SDK allows managing all the devices connected to the PAASMER platform.

Analyze:
The PAASMER Developer Login enables the users to Analyze the data that is being sent from the devices and draw a meaningful conclusion out of it. There is also an option for Manual control of sensors based on inputs received.

Paasmer_sdk_platform

Overview of PAASMER IOT platform

SDK:
The PAASMER SDK for Embedded C, Python and ESP Open RTOS is a collection of source files that enables you to connect to the PAASMER IOT Platform. It includes the transport client for MQTT with TLS support. It is distributed in source form and intended to be built into customer firmware along with application code, other libraries, and RTOS.

Features:
The SDK’s simplifies access to the Pub/Sub functionality of the PAASMER IOT broker via MQTT. The SDK has been tested to work on the Raspberry Pi 3 running Raspbian Jessie and NodeMCU / Adafruit Huzzah. Support for Other SBC’s running any flavors of Linux would be available shortly. The SBC-SDK provides functionality to create and maintain a mutually authenticated TLS connection over which it runs MQTT. This connection is used for any further publish operations and allow for subscribing to MQTT topics which will call a configurable callback function when these topics are received. More information is available about the SDK’s at https://github.com/PAASMERIOT/

Developer Login:
The PAASMER Developer Login provides the ability for the User to register, Login, View devices, sensor data and the ability to send control messages to the Edge hardware.

Features:
The PAASMER developer Login is available at http://developers.paasmer.co. Here the user can register for the free trial and upon verification of the credentials is allowed to Login.

After login, the user is directed to the various available SDK’s that he can download and edit the same to enable his devices to be connected to the PAASMER IOT platform.

Once the SDK’s are downloaded onto the devices and his credentials entered and the program is running, the device is connected the PAASMER IOT platform and starts sending sensor information.

This sensor information is available on the PAASMER Developer Login for viewing and base on the sensor information the User can take actions using the control feeds to control actuators.

Paasmer_wearable-devices

IOT will be inherent force behind Wearables

Sridhar krishnan

Sridhar krishnan

The capabilities of IOT with the wearable devices like internet connectivity, a device to device communications, lightweight apps, data filtering, local and cloud analytics, etc.., are bringing many opportunities to develop more meaningful solutions for consumers. Here, I would like to talk about few of them.

paasmer_Wearables

The wearable devices with the technological innovation of IOT are widely successful in providing the fitness and healthcare related solutions. We have a lot of scope for environmental monitoring also, but the challenge is cost and power. A very few are successful in low cost and low power sensors in wearable devices used for environmental monitoring. These environmental devices can collect data on Air, Light, and Sound. With continuous innovations in sensors, we can expect that the manufacturing and operation cost of these devices will become more affordable and capable of sensing multiple environmental data. The wearable nature of the device gives constant mobility to the device. This opens up an opportunity to crowdsource the more accurate and real-time environmental data with location details. The data collected by the device can be from the sensors embedded in it and from other sensors in reachable distance based on the supported protocols and standards.

Having more accurate and crowdsourced real-time environmental data in the cloud combined with another cloud accessible real-time and forecasted environmental data from static stations set up by governments and institutes brings tremendous opportunities for IOT device manufacturers and solution providers to build innovative, value added, cost effective consumer devices and solutions.

In health care, the environmental data can be used for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of many human pathologies which are influenced or triggered by environmental stimuli. By analyzing the consumers’ health data like health history, medical records and any other health-related data with the environmental and location data, we can develop customized healthcare solutions to help consumers with health advisories and warnings. It can also be used to provide B2B solutions like connecting consumers with doctors for consultation, Pharmacy to order suggested list of things to order, etc.,

Wearables_healthcare_paasmer

The consumer specific health data and location specific real-time and forecasted environmental data can also be used to provide travel advisories and b2b solutions with a list of things to carry based on the mode of transport and travel locations, and option to buy the recommended list of things online. So, with the capabilities of IOT, we still have lot of opportunities that can be explored with the wearable devices in healthcare, travel, city management, traffic management, waste management, disaster management, etc.,

References – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4295929/

aquaponics-hydroponics-10

Transforming Hydroponics and Aquaponics farming Using Internet of Things

ManagementTeamMouli1

Kavitha Gopalan

With the growth in urban population, the need for more space seems perpetual. Traditional farming techniques are known for the need of large lands and the enormous amount of water. So the need for revolutionary farming techniques which occupies lesser space, consume lesser water and can give larger produce have led to the popularity of farming methods like hydroponics and aquaponics.

Hydroponic farming is a system of growing plants without soil using nutrient-laden solution to deliver nourishment directly to the roots of the plants. In hydroponic farming, the idea is to create a controlled environment for the plants with the right level of temperature, moisture, CO2, pH, water level and nutrients and supplying this solution directly to the plant’s roots. This method of creating an optimal environment for plants helps to increase the productivity by 3 folds. It also has other benefits like the re-use of the nutrient solution, reduces the amount of water used for farming by recycling, reduced fertilizer usage and requires lesser space.

Aquaponics is a system which uses aquaculture with hydroponics. In an aquaponics system, water from an aquaculture system is fed to a hydroponics system where the by-products are broken down by nitrifying bacteria initially into nitrites and subsequently into nitrates, which are utilized by the plants as nutrients, and the water is then recirculated back to the aquaculture system.

While these new techniques promise great results, it has certain inherent challenges which inhibit its widespread adoption.

The biggest hurdle for its adoption is the maintenance of the system. It could be time-consuming and be challenging to understand and constantly monitor the hydroponic or aquaponic systems.

Setting up these systems could be a mammoth task, the number of sensors to be installed, the triggers and the parameter configuring could be time-consuming.

It also requires constant monitoring of the sensors and the system. A hydroponic farm must be regularly attended to by a farmer, to know if there is any blockage in the drainage system, to understand if any system failure/power failure if the pump is on/off. If they must set-up multiple farms then scalability becomes an issue.

IOT will be a key problem solver for hydroponics and aquaponics systems with its ability to connect various sensors in the field to cloud and allowing it to be monitored and controlled from anywhere.

The Union of Internet of Things and hydroponic farming will be the future of demystifying the hydroponic farming and making it easier for adoption.

The internet of things will bring in features like automation, remote monitoring and control and build intelligence into the hydroponic farming system. This helps to prevent the need for the human presence in the farm every time and allows efficient monitoring and control of the farm from a remote location.

Sensors mounted in the farm could be used for monitoring CO2, air current, lighting, fertilizer flow, and the pH of the soil. The readings from these sensors are then analyzed in cloud systems. These readings are monitored continuously and tuned if there is any change in environment. Immediate alerts of the status and action will result in increased yield.

Blockchain_paasmer_paltform

Basic concepts in a Blockchain transaction

ManagementTeamMouli1

Chandramouli Srinivasan

In this blog, Demir talks about the basic terms used in Blockchain like Hashing, Decentralization, Digital Signature, Share Crypto currency, Minors (Agents), Blockchain (The Ledger).

Using Blockchain technology means

  1. All transaction is made over the Internet using P2P communication, thus removing the need for a central authority.
  2. Users can perform anonymous transactions by utilizing asynchronous cryptography and they are identified only by their private key/public key combination.
  3. You have implemented a validated global ledger of all transactions that has been safely copied to every peer in the network.

These decentralized technology fundamentals can be leveraged by any centralized technology currently being used like IoT, Financial systems, insurance systems etc. The increase in computing power requirement for Blockchain is a potential issue for Blockchain implementations. However, there are many types of researchers underway that could change the way a commercial and viable implementation of Blockchain occurs.

More on this blog from Demir here: https://www.toptal.com/bitcoin/cryptocurrency-for-dummies-bitcoin-and-beyond

Hybride_internet of things_platform

Hybrid IOT: The path forward for Industrial IOT

Sridhar krishnan

Sridhar krishnan

IIOT for manufacturing efficiency

The Industrial Internet of Things can help the manufacturing industries to transform to a smart industry. It enables them to collect data on machines, manufacturing process, the products produced and the quality of the products from the systems like mechatronics, embedded systems, and sensor hardware network. IIOT offers analytical applications to extract information from the raw data collected from various systems. The information helps the industries to improve the efficiency of the manufacturing process that will result in improve their productivity with optimized cost and improved quality, implement automation and predictive maintenance to avoid breakdowns.

IIOT_Manufacturing

Challenges with mix of legacy and modern systems

The challenges and complexities of industries in implementing IIOT applications are various kinds of machines in the industry both legacy and modern. Most of the legacy machines have older sensors, controllers and proprietary systems, whereas the modern manufacturing equipment offers a wide selection of connectivity options, a whole range of data feeds and integrates data into modern data analytics software. The industry is working on to build and implement standard protocols, compatible interfaces and architectures to achieve full interoperability. But bringing old machines into IIOT is continue to be challenging as they require retrofitting of sensors, connectivity and simple compute endpoints to generate any kind of meaningful data at all.

Edge devices can solve the problem

The Edge or Gateway IIOT device which can act as a bridge between the data generating endpoints and IIOT cloud applications can solve the problem of connecting older sensors, controllers and proprietary system by custom implementations.The different kinds of capabilities can be added in the Edge devices to access different kinds of machines and sensors both legacy and modern. These devices can be deployed and IIOT applications can be provisioned to implement machine to machine communications and to connect with IIOT management platform.

power-of-IoT-Edge3-750x400

Hybrid IIOT development platform for Edge device development and management

We have a challenge in developing different kinds of edge devices to connect both older and modern machines with IIOT management platform to build a complete IIOT implementation for a manufacturing industry.

A hybrid IIOT platform can solve this challenge by offering the different kinds of Edge device development kits both in-premises private cloud with industry-specific support to develop and manage the edge devices for older machines and in public cloud with open standard support to develop and manage the edge devices for modern machines. So, A Hybrid IIOT development and management platform can solve the challenges in implementing a complete IIOT solution for industries.

Home automation and HVAC control_paasmer platform

Home Automation and HVAC Control

ManagementTeamMouli1

Srinidhi Murthy

The Internet of Things is set to disrupt the way we live and work, but for now, let’s focus on the “live” portion of that statement. Smart homes filled with connected products are loaded with possibilities to make our lives easier, more convenient, and more comfortable.

Imagine that you’re driving home on a hot summer day. But rather than turning the air conditioner on when you get home and wait for your house to cool, you simply use your smartphone when you leave your office to tell your smart thermostat to lower the temperature.

Or imagine that you’re cooking dinner, and you ask the voice assistant to read you today’s biggest news stories so that you can focus on making your kid’s favorite lasagne. There is no shortage of possibilities for smart home IoT devices, and home automation seems to be the wave of the future.

Experts estimate that the number of smart home devices shipped will grow from 83 million in 2015 to 193 million in 2020. This includes all smart appliances (washers, dryers, refrigerators, etc.), smart home safety and security systems (sensors, monitors, cameras, and alarm systems), and smart home energy equipment, like smart thermostats and smart lighting.

There are many benefits of home/building Automation which are listed below.

  • Security: Motion sensors
  • Efficiency: Automatic switch off when not in use.
  • Convenience: Control everything from your fingertips.
  • Savings: You save money with an efficient Home automation system.

The first and most obvious benefit to smart homes is a convenience, as more connected devices can handle more operations (lighting, temperature, etc.) and free up the resident to perform other tasks.

As with all shifts in technology, changes will happen in the ways we live and do business. With the actions being taken for more energy efficiency in construction and managing of buildings there is a big potential through Internet of Things. HVAC systems that can make their own intelligent decisions based on presence, weather and lots of other indicators have a great potential to cut energy use and cost.

We are also certain that new business models will emerge. HVAC systems using IoT will be able to predict situations from collected data and have automated alarms for service and maintenance that can facilitate new services.

Paasmer:

Mobodexter’s PAASMER provided the complete set of components to build this solution from End to End satisfying all the needs of the client in the shortest possible time frame.

Here we explain how PAASMER has been used to connect a traditional HVAC system using a custom built IR blaster to the Paasmer IoT platform and how to control the same remotely.

Paasmer_HVAC

The solution has 4 modules, the Hardware, the Misty OS, the Paasmer IoT Platform and the App. We shall look at each of them below.

Gateway Hardware:
The Gateway Hardware consists of Network MCU boards with an IR Receiver and an IR transmitter connected to it. The Firmware that runs on the Network MCU is responsible for connecting to the Paasmer IoT Platform and ability to send and receive data from the Paasmer IoT platform.

It is also responsible for decoding the correct pattern to be sent via the IR transmitter and recording the correct pattern from the IR receiver.

Misty OS:

Misty OS is designed to be flexible, modular and gateway platform agnostic. The core functionality of the OS, Connectivity, H/W interface and middleware component are built into Misty OS. The gateway has interfaces for IR Transmitter and an IR receiver

It operates in two modes, Learning, and Transmits.

In Learning mode, the Hardware learns all the new IR codes that are needed for a particular device and stores the data on the Paasmer IoT Platform specific to the user. The learning mode can be enabled from the App and has options to choose the device type and device subtype. Once all the buttons of the remote have been learned it is ready to work.

In Transmit mode, messages are received from the App via the Paasmer IoT platform inform the Hardware to blast out the appropriate IR signature for the button pressed in the App. This IR signal is blasted across and very wide range using duplicate IR transmitters to cover an almost 360-degree range to control the HVAC system.

Paasmer IoT Platform:

Paasmer is a one stop shop for connecting all your devices to the internet and read data from them as well as control them. The Paasmer IoT Platform hosts the message broker, the necessary business logic, data store and all the necessary interconnections between them. It provides a platform onto which all Gateway HW devices, mobile phones, websites can be interconnected.

App:

The App connects to the Paasmer IoT Platform and based on the user login details and displays the data of the devices that are available for control. The user can select the appropriate device and control the device using the buttons on his screen. These button clicks are translated to the respective messages which are published by the Paasmer IoT Platform.

Paasmer_HVAC_1

In the current scenario a user wants to switch off the HVAC, so he selects the HVAC and then switches it off. These switches off messages are published to the broker on a particular topic. The Gateway Hardware is subscribed to this particular topic and hence receives the message.

The Gateway Hardware then decodes the message and immediately blasts the respective IR signature to turn off the AC.

Demystifying the Blockchain technology_paasmer_platfrorm

Demystifying the Blockchain Technology

ManagementTeamMouli1

Chandramouli Srinivasan

Blockchain promises to produce a shift in the current computing paradigm because it has the potential to become the infrastructure catalyst for the creation of decentralized applications. The Blockchain is being seen as the next-step evolution from distributed computing architectural constructs, to a global database of data and interfaces, integrating all kinds of machines and sources of data.

Four underlying concepts in Blockchain are:

  • Blockchain.
  • Decentralized databases applications consensus.
  • Smart contracts.
  • Proof of Stake(PoS).

1.Blockchain

As we all know blockchain technology started with the bitcoin. Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer electronic payments system, also known as a cryptocurrency, that allows people to make instant, anonymous transactions online.

The unique characteristic of bitcoin is that it records every single transaction made on its network in a public record. This is known as the “blockchain”. A new blockchain is created every ten minutes. That blockchain is afterward shared throughout the network. The chain is constantly growing because each completed “blocks” is added to the public ledger. There are an infinite number of blocks on the blockchain because as soon as one block gets completed, another is automatically generated.

2. Decentralized Databases Applications Consensus

Blockchain’s potential for the development of decentralized database applications consensus is based on the unique characteristics of the technology, as outlined previously.

A decentralized scheme, on which the bitcoin protocol is based, transfers authority and trust to a decentralized virtual network and enables its nodes to continuously and sequentially record transactions on a public “block” creating a unique “chain”: this is the inception and keywords genesis for blockchain.

3. Smart contracts

A scaled blockchain is something that starts proving a new global (somehow still science fiction) ecosystem. For this, the smart contracts are the building blocks for decentralized applications.

Smart contracts are contracts whose terms are recorded in a computer language instead of legal language. Smart contracts can be automatically executed by a computing system, such as a suitably distributed ledger system.

4. Proof of stake

Proof of stake (PoS) is a method by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. While the proof of work (PoS) method asks users to repeatedly run hashing algorithms or other client puzzles to validate electronic transactions, proof-of-stake asks users to prove ownership of a certain amount of currency (their “stake” in the currency). Peercoin was the first cryptocurrency to launch using proof-of-Stake. With Proof of stake, the probability of mining a block depends on the work done by the miner (e.g. CPU/GPU cycles spent checking hashes).

In this Toptal blog by Nermin as few more basic concepts around the Bitcoin – Crypto currency is covered https://www.toptal.com/bitcoin/blockchain-technology-powering-bitcoin

iot2

Naturalizing IOT through standardization

ManagementTeamMouli1

Kavitha Gopalan

Internet of Things is one of fast growing technology in the recent years. It’s expected that the growth of connected things will be around 50 billion by 2020. Every industry vertical has signed itself into embracing IOT either to create cutting edge products or for optimizing the resource and improve efficiency. As IOT growth explodes there are few challenges that are becoming key road blocks for a wider adoption of IOT. The two of the challenges that stands out are the security and Standardization.

Like any new growing technology, standardization is important for IOT. Standardization will allow devices to interoperable in IOT and allow seamless integration between various verticals. Several attempts have been made to standardize IOT, new alliances and consortiums have been formed but there is yet no single winner though many have shown promises for becoming one.

Why is standardizing IOT difficult?

The main reason for the complexity of IOT standardization is the fragmented nature of its adoption base. IOT is a global phenomenon and it has expanded its roots to all sectors of life- Factories, Healthcare, transportation, utilities, home. The standards and protocol used for one vertical may not scale well for the other. For example, a smart home device may be managed with the wireless protocol such as Zigbee or WiFi. But when IOT is used for an M2M application Zigbee or WiFi may not be the right approach we need to look at cellular communication protocols.

Similarly, each layer of the IOT architecture could vary depending on which industry its used for. The way an industrial application handles data may be different from the way the home device handles it. So arriving at the common standard which is agreeable to all has been difficult.

Differences in IOT spring from each layer of the architecture. Each vendor/manufacturer use the approach which easily adaptable to their industry segment.

Where are we now?

Z-wave and Zigbee were the top standards used by several smart home manufacturers in the beginning. But they could not establish themselves as the defacto standard for IOT. Then we had many more communication protocols that emerged as the one that could serve the needs of IOT, there are around 12+ protocols now available for IOT, Bluetooth, Zigbee, Zwave, EnOcean, NFC, WiFI, LPWAN, NB-IOT, weightless, LoRA, LTE, Cellular being some of them.

The differences are just not in the communication layer.Different standards are available for data transport in IOT – MQTT, CoAP, REST, SOAP, Websocket.

Many consortium and alliance have been formed to standardize IOT. Some of the as listed below

  • The Open Interconnect Consortium has come out with their IOTvity standards
  • AllSeen Alliance has their ALLJoyn standard.
  • THread group has the thread standard.
  • ZigBee Alliance has their Zigbee standard.
  • Z Wave alliance.
  • Industrial Internet Consortium.

The goal of these consortiums is to find a common ground /standard that every vendor manufacturer can follow while implementing IOT. But unfortunately they haven’t been able to agree on the terms But currently, no one has emerged as the leader in setting the standards. Disagreement in standards, licensing has been the reason for no clear winner. Which standard will emerge as a leader will be based on which is easily adaptable by manufacturers.

Right now every vendor puts together the pieces that works best for their application without much thought on the standards. But if IOT has to mature a common standard must emerge which would allow Interoperability of various devices and can scale to different industry verticals seamlessly. Whether this is possible or not depends on how much collaboration happens between this different consortium.