Basic concepts in a Blockchain transaction


Chandramouli Srinivasan

In this blog, Demir talks about the basic terms used in Blockchain like Hashing, Decentralization, Digital Signature, Share Crypto currency, Minors (Agents), Blockchain (The Ledger).

Using Blockchain technology means

  1. All transaction is made over the Internet using P2P communication, thus removing the need for a central authority.
  2. Users can perform anonymous transactions by utilizing asynchronous cryptography and they are identified only by their private key/public key combination.
  3. You have implemented a validated global ledger of all transactions that has been safely copied to every peer in the network.

These decentralized technology fundamentals can be leveraged by any centralized technology currently being used like IoT, Financial systems, insurance systems etc. The increase in computing power requirement for Blockchain is a potential issue for Blockchain implementations. However, there are many types of researchers underway that could change the way a commercial and viable implementation of Blockchain occurs.

More on this blog from Demir here:

Demystifying the Blockchain technology_paasmer_platfrorm

Demystifying the Blockchain Technology


Chandramouli Srinivasan

Blockchain promises to produce a shift in the current computing paradigm because it has the potential to become the infrastructure catalyst for the creation of decentralized applications. The Blockchain is being seen as the next-step evolution from distributed computing architectural constructs, to a global database of data and interfaces, integrating all kinds of machines and sources of data.

Four underlying concepts in Blockchain are:

  • Blockchain.
  • Decentralized databases applications consensus.
  • Smart contracts.
  • Proof of Stake(PoS).


As we all know blockchain technology started with the bitcoin. Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer electronic payments system, also known as a cryptocurrency, that allows people to make instant, anonymous transactions online.

The unique characteristic of bitcoin is that it records every single transaction made on its network in a public record. This is known as the “blockchain”. A new blockchain is created every ten minutes. That blockchain is afterward shared throughout the network. The chain is constantly growing because each completed “blocks” is added to the public ledger. There are an infinite number of blocks on the blockchain because as soon as one block gets completed, another is automatically generated.

2. Decentralized Databases Applications Consensus

Blockchain’s potential for the development of decentralized database applications consensus is based on the unique characteristics of the technology, as outlined previously.

A decentralized scheme, on which the bitcoin protocol is based, transfers authority and trust to a decentralized virtual network and enables its nodes to continuously and sequentially record transactions on a public “block” creating a unique “chain”: this is the inception and keywords genesis for blockchain.

3. Smart contracts

A scaled blockchain is something that starts proving a new global (somehow still science fiction) ecosystem. For this, the smart contracts are the building blocks for decentralized applications.

Smart contracts are contracts whose terms are recorded in a computer language instead of legal language. Smart contracts can be automatically executed by a computing system, such as a suitably distributed ledger system.

4. Proof of stake

Proof of stake (PoS) is a method by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. While the proof of work (PoS) method asks users to repeatedly run hashing algorithms or other client puzzles to validate electronic transactions, proof-of-stake asks users to prove ownership of a certain amount of currency (their “stake” in the currency). Peercoin was the first cryptocurrency to launch using proof-of-Stake. With Proof of stake, the probability of mining a block depends on the work done by the miner (e.g. CPU/GPU cycles spent checking hashes).

In this Toptal blog by Nermin as few more basic concepts around the Bitcoin – Crypto currency is covered


Real State of IoT and the Security challenges


Chandramouli Srinivasan

In a recent article by our friend Nermin at Toptal says “The Internet of Things (IoT) has been an industry buzzword for years, but sluggish development and limited commercialization have led some industry watchers to start calling it the “Internet of NoThings”. Double puns aside, IoT development is in trouble. Aside from spawning geeky jokes unfit for most social occasions, the hype did not help; and, in fact, I believe it actually caused a lot more harm than good. There are a few problems with IoT, but all the positive coverage and baseless hype are one we could do without. The upside of generating more attention is clear: more investment, more VC funding, more consumer interest”

He also says the top two challenges that continue to haunt IoT as “1) Security – Just not the vulnerable devices that get hacked but also the misuse of the data collected from devices. 2) Hardware pain points – Security needs to be built from hardware and that comes at an additional cost”

While the concerns are genuine on security, we have been talking to a few IoT device manufacturers on the need to increase their budget for hardware and software to secure the devices they use or sell. Most of these cases, we still a lot of reluctance to implement additional security at an additional cost on the consumer side while enterprises are willing to secure the devices at an additional cost. Also the new software paradigms of “IoT on ToR” and “IoT on BlockChain” are also starting to get traction and they also are going to come at additional cost. It appears like it will take many more massive security attacks like Anti-DDoS to shift the mindset to put security first in IoT product designs. The questions remain as “Are we willing to pay the price for what?”

Read full article from Nermin in this link:

Also check out our article on “IoT on BlockChain” in this link:


A Marriage made in Heaven – IoT & Blockchain


Chandramouli Srinivasan

One of the Forrester research predictions for IoT in 2017 is the marriage of IoT with Blockchain which could resolve all the potential security threats & vulnerabilities of IoT. Blockchain was originally designed for financial applications like virtual currency (Bitcoins). However, experts predict that its application in another area like IoT can offer an immense secure advantage.

Blockchain technology – that highly disruptive online general ledger or database – is poised to recast the Internet of Things, opening it up to networks and partnerships to accelerate its value. Blockchain “may have the most impactful potential of the entire portfolio of disruptive technologies that are now emerging.” That’s because blockchain is likely to impact many aspects of business operations and strategies – such as business models, processes, supply chains and customer relationships. The Internet of Things, in particular, is an initiative will see a re-arrangement due to the blockchain.

The definition of blockchain is in its ability to digitally deliver “peer-to-peer value exchange.” Security and verifiability are inherently protected through its “globally distributed computations and heavy duty encryption — that ensure the integrity of the data traded among billions of devices without going through a trusted third party. Trust is hard-coded into the Blockchain platform and the platform acts as a ledger of accounts, a database, a notary, a sentry and clearing house, all by consensus.

Here is the picture of a typical Blockchain transaction


How can Blockchain be used in IoT?
In an IoT network, the blockchain can keep an immutable record of the history of smart devices. This feature enables the autonomous functioning of smart devices without the need for centralized authority. Thus, the blockchain opens the door to a series of IoT scenarios that were remarkably difficult, or even impossible to implement without it.

By leveraging the blockchain, IoT solutions can enable secure, trustless messaging between devices in an IoT network. In this model, the blockchain will treat message exchanges between devices like financial transactions in a bitcoin network. To enable message exchanges, devices will leverage smart contracts which then model the agreement between the two parties.

In this scenario, we can sensor from afar, communicating directly with the irrigation system to control the flow of water based on conditions detected on the crops. Similarly, smart devices in an oil platform can exchange data to adjust functioning based on weather conditions.

Using the blockchain will enable true autonomous smart devices that can exchange data, or even execute financial transactions, without the need of a centralized broker. This type of autonomy is possible because the nodes in the blockchain network will verify the validity of the transaction without relying on a centralized authority.

PAASMER is one of the few platforms that already has a working prototype implementation of Blockchain for IoT. Production & commercial usage of this implementation is slated for general availability in PAASMER within the next couple of years.


A Guideline to CIOs for their IoT Deployments to be Successful


Chandramouli Srinivasan

The proliferation of the Internet of Things will drive widespread adoption of IoT solutions, including IoT platforms. IT leaders and directors of application infrastructure need to understand the capabilities, scope, and relationship of IoT platforms to existing IT infrastructure.

Key Challenges:

  • New IoT business solutions are composed of a complex, heterogeneous mix of IoT endpoints and platforms, and back-end systems and data.
  • IoT platforms typically offer many functionality capabilities, which vary (as do related marketing claims) from provider to provider, and IoT project requirements vary widely, making it difficult for enterprises and service providers to understand, compare and choose products.
  • IoT platforms are often bundled with specific renderings of IoT capabilities (for example, analytics) to solve specific business problems (such as predictive maintenance), but these typically, must be configured or customized to suit, and, at times, these capabilities augment and overlap (or look like) similar capabilities elsewhere in your application infrastructure.
  • Many business units are implementing use cases that include embedded Internet of Things (IoT) solutions. CIOs need to step up to provide leadership that can unleash and capture IoT benefits at the enterprise level.
  • The interplay between the four core capabilities of IoT — sense, communicate, analyze and act – makes it very different from traditional IT. This lack of familiarity makes planning difficult.
  • Confusion about the relationship between IoT, operational technology and digital business makes it a challenge to position IoT correctly within the organization.
  • The complexity and novelty of Internet of Things (IoT) solutions create challenges with controlling scope.
  • The market and technology for IoT are volatile and dynamic, increasing the risk that planned deployments can become obsolete by the time they launch.
  • Procurement options for IoT are evolving and include tying into third-party endpoints and IoT systems. In addition, emerging IoT ecosystems are forming around standards, and leading industrial and consumer brands are extending into IoT.
  • There is a high risk of IoT project failure due to technology complexity; limited internal skills; knowledge, cultural and organizational barriers; and difficulties realizing planned benefits.


  • Use IoT Solution Scope Reference Model to help identify the key IoT solutions components and understand their roles, importance, and relationship to each other and existing infrastructure.
  • Commission an IoT center of excellence role to explore the potential business value of IoT solutions and their potential impact on existing IT infrastructure.
  • Plan a phased approach, to fully realize IoT project potential. Focus initially on IoT platform deployment and, over time, integrate the platform with back-end systems, data, and analytics.
  • Identify the core benefits of IoT that are most relevant to your organization. We define the eight core IoT benefits as improving operations, optimizing assets, enhancing services, generating revenues, increasing engagement, improving well-being, strengthening security and conserving resources. Link these benefits to high-level business objectives to set the strategic context for IoT.
  • Form cross-functional teams of business and technology leaders to brainstorm future business moment scenarios and the role that IoT can play. Then work collaboratively to prioritize those that warrant further development.
  • Plan how your organization can leverage the four capabilities of IoT (sense, communicate, analyze and act) in support of business moment scenarios.
  • Control the scope of early IoT use cases by reducing technology complexity, limiting the number of endpoints, and cutting down or eliminating complex integration with enterprise systems.
  • Monitor IoT market developments on an ongoing basis. Identify opportunities to substitute customized IoT components and related software with commodity mass-market components.
  • Pursue opportunities to tie into third-party IoT and emerging IoT ecosystems first, before engaging in the custom development of IoT solutions.
  • Conduct one or more IoT pilot projects before going into a production deployment. Be prepared to iterate through multiple pilots, which will reduce risk by applying lessons learned.

IOT Solution Architecture Styles


Chandramouli Srinivasan

There are many ways to architect the Internet of Things implementations for enterprises. CIOs must consider security, privacy, cost, ease of access, agility and performance to determine the best architecture for each enterprise.

Enterprises will build and adapt their Internet of Things implementations based on a combination of these five main architecture styles:

  • Thing-centric. Things are smart on their own and store most of their data on-board. Things are self-sufficient and communicate to the Internet only for centralized coordination and analysis.
  • Gateway-centric. The gateway houses the application logic, stores data and communicates with the Internet for the things that are connected to it. Things don’t have to be as smart because the gateway provides these resources.
  • Smartphone-centric. The smartphone (or any mobile device) houses the application logic, stores data and communicates with the Internet for the things that are connected to it. Things don’t have to be as smart because the smartphone provides these resources.
  • Cloud-centric. The cloud will act as the central connection hub, power analytics, and provision data storage. Things don’t have to be as smart because the cloud will provide these resources
  • Enterprise-centric. Things are behind a firewall and are geographically collocated. There is little need to extend out to the external Internet.


Each architecture has its own advantages and disadvantages. These architectures are designed to be style models that most enterprises will want to combine according to their needs. The reason why the names of each of these architectures are appended with “centric” (for example, cloud-centric) is that we expect that most enterprises will not pursue a pure implementation. For example, an enterprise might favor a smartphone-centric architecture, but may still rely significantly on cloud resources.

Enterprise CIOs and IT leaders should use these steps as a way of thinking about how to implement these architectures:

  1. Find the architectures that fit your use cases. Use the criteria in the Choosing the Right IoT Architectures section. Expect to have different use cases that require different architectures within the same enterprise.
  2. Choose or build an IoT platform that can support these chosen architectures — (ideally, all architectures, even the ones you won’t adopt immediately).
  3. Consider emerging technologies that may eliminate the advantages and disadvantages of an architecture style. For example, high-performance messaging protocols (for example, Data Distribution Service remove the latency in the cloud to provide real-time communications as if the machines were locally close. The cost of computing, storage, and communications will also be an emerging factor. For example, a decreasing cost of hardware against a rising cost of communications would influence an enterprise toward a thing- or gateway-centric style, as opposed to a cloud-centric style.

Choosing the Right IoT Architectures by Prioritizing Constraints

To properly evaluate which architecture styles fit best, enterprise CIOs and IT leaders should consider the following criteria. There is no right answer. Often, what is perceived as an advantage in some situations (for example, using cloud resources to remove cost and complexity from things) is actually a disadvantage in other situations (for example, connecting to the cloud is problematic or less secure).

The Priority constraints that needs to managed are

  1. The cost of hardware, software, and data.
  2. Connectivity & technical requirements based on reliability and quality of service; Real-Time Performance.
  3. Data and Security.
  4. Users and Implementations complexity.

IoT Basic Definitions and States


Chandramouli Srinivasan

There is much variation in understanding of the Internet of Things and its related concepts — operational technology and machine-to-machine communication.The concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) is not fundamentally new, but several factors are converging to drive extremely high levels of deployment. Mass adoption is shifting the IoT into a powerful force for business transformation.

  • The IoT is the network of dedicated physical objects (things) that contain embedded technology to sense or interact with their internal state or external environment. The IoT comprises an ecosystem that includes things, communication, applications and data analysis.
  • Machine-to-machine (M2M) communication services refer to connectivity services that link IoT “things” to central or back-end systems, without human input.
  • Operational technology (OT) is enterprise technology used to monitor and/or control physical devices, assets and processes.

Why Now for the IoT?
The concept of the IoT is not fundamentally new. Connected “things” have provided benefits to enterprises and consumers for years. Examples include automated teller machines (ATMs), airline check-in machines and card-operated door locks. Back-end systems have provided much value in these situations by analyzing usage patterns, enhancing maintenance support and interfacing with enterprise software. However, the IoT is evolving beyond these early examples as increasing penetration and greater numbers of use cases lead to the much greater utility.

Several diverse factors are converging to drive further value and use from the IoT:

  • Business models that take advantage of the IoT are emerging — such as pay-as-you-drive insurance offerings, smart waste bins on city streets and remote healthcare services. These models are seen as proof that the IoT will solve real business problems, and they spur enterprises to explore new ways in which to use the IoT.
  • The costs of connectivity and of embedded technology have fallen to a point where this is no longer a barrier to adoption. Costs are now low enough for most situations and are continuing to fall. Broadband is now well penetrated to allow much of this connectivity.
  • Mobile app development platforms have matured, allowing OT devices such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to be controlled and monitored remotely from a tablet computer. APIs are being added to industrial and other OT software in order to support this change.
  • The power of big data and analytics is being applied to the data originating from things. This supports decision making in a wide range of contexts and is probably the largest value component of the IoT.
  • New applications are rapidly emerging that focus on the control and monitoring of physical entities. These are extremely diverse and include inventory control, remote healthcare, livestock control, home energy management, agricultural crop sensing, and many more examples.
  • IoT hosting platforms are available from a growing list of suppliers. These cloud-based facilities can scale to very large numbers of users and things. They integrate and link with application and middleware while providing some degree of security. These platforms offer a quick and easy basis on which to develop IoT solutions.
  • Standards and ecosystems are starting to form. These will stabilize over the next several years, facilitating rapid development of solutions across a range of industries.
  • Distributed DBMS styles such as NoSQL and higher performance in-memory computing are available to support real-time analytics.
  • Regulation and legislation are pushing some categories of things into the mainstream. Examples include smart meters and many automotive functions. Intelligent lighting will follow as governments encourage energy savings through light-emitting diode (LED) technology. The infrastructure required for these use cases will support further examples and will, therefore boost overall growth of the IoT.

IoT Today offers Limited Value

  • Few use cases
  • Fragmented solutions
  • Unclear ownership of the IoT in enterprises

IoT Tomorrow will offer Transformation Value

  • Mass adoption
  • Tens of billions of things connected
  • Multi-trillion-dollar economic value from the IoT

Future IoT will be driven by these Key Drivers

  • New business models that take advantage of the IoT
  • Falling costs of connectivity and technology
  • Mobile app development platforms
  • Analytics applied to things
  • New applications
  • IoT hosting platforms
  • Standards and ecosystems
  • Distributed and real-time architectures
  • Regulation

Unleashing the Power of IoT Edge


Chandramouli Srinivasan

Enterprises are increasingly connecting a broad variety and number of IoT endpoints (a collection of sensors) to access data from and better manage physical assets that are relevant to their business. Typical IoT-enabled business objectives include traditional benefits, such as improved asset management, as well as new business opportunities and revenue models, such as subscribed-to services. Integrated IoT platforms are required due to the increasing sophistication, scale and business value of these data exchanges.

An IoT platform is an on-premises software suite or a cloud service (IoT platform as a service[PaaS]) that monitors and may manage and control various types of endpoints, often via applications business units deploy on the platform. The IoT platform generally incorporates operations involving IoT endpoints (sensors, devices, and multidevice systems), IoT gateways, and back-end enterprise applications and data. The platform provides the capability to monitor IoT event streams, enables specialized analysis and application development, and engages back-end IT systems or services. It typically plays a vital role in providing functionality for provisioning, controlling and even changing the endpoints to support IoT solutions. Any IoT solution contains two parts an IoT Edge (includes endpoints and gateways) and an IoT Cloud (includes Cloud, Analytics, and Visualizations).

General IoT Platform capabilities include:

  • Provisioning and management of devices
  • Data aggregation, integration, transformation, storage, and management
  • Device Event processing: Policy and Rules Management
  • Cybersecurity
  • IoT device communications (network and/or the Internet)
  • Adapter or Connectors (API hub, gateway software)
  • Customizing and building applications (SDK, IDE etc.)
  • IoT data analysis and visualization including machine learning
  • User interfaces for both end users and developers

MostIoT Platforms offer many of these capabilities in the cloud and allow edge devices like sensors and gateway to connect to their cloud and leverage these capabilities.

The IoT platform may be implemented by the enterprise as an on-premises solution, using an IoT PaaS in the cloud, or be distributed between any combination of on-premises IoT endpoint agents, the gateway, public cloud IoT PaaS, and back-end systems and data.Very few Edge focused IoT platforms like Fog-Horn and PAASMER provide many of these capabilities on the Edge of IoT. Offering these capabilities at the Edge means all the data from the sensors can be processed at the IoT Edge. This plays a critical role in providing a more real-time response to events and to lower the cost of maintaining an IoT solution.

MISTY is PAASMER IoT Edge software that bundles all the key elements required to power the edge to be truly intelligent than act as data transfer agents. Unique aspects of MISTY are:

    1. Modular Operating System.
    2. High Speed Edge Database.
    3. Real-Time Rules Engine.
    4. Edge Analytics.
    5. Edge Machine Learning Engine.
    6. Hyper-Scale Cloud Connectors.
    7. Patented Security Engine.

IoT platform software is an emerging market with many types of buyers across the enterprise, from central IT to various lines of business (or LOBs). These buyers have different objectives, project types and success criteria. IoT platform software’s rapid evolution is driven by enterprises’ technical and business requirements, which continue to rapidly evolve and vary by industry and region, and emerging standards.

platform copy

How to choose your IoT Platform Architecture?


Chandramouli Srinivasan

These IoT Platforms are the key for the development of scalable IoT applications and services that connect the real and virtual worlds between objects, systems, and people. However, as the IoT Platform market represents a truly new segment that was almost non-existent a few years ago, the landscape is complex and changing very quickly.

There are more than 300 IoT platforms in the market today and the number is continuing to grow. However, as discussed not every platform is the same – IoT platforms are being shaped by varying entry strategies of different companies trying to capitalize on the IoT potential. Innovative Startups, hardware and networking equipment manufacturers, enterprise software and mobility management companies are all competing to become the best IoT platform on the market. Various strategies are visible with companies:

  • Organic bottom-up approach: Starting with the connectivity part and building out platform features from the bottom-up (e.g., Ayla Networks – Investor Cisco, Solair – Acquired by Microsoft, Dell’s Gateway from Force10 acquisition, Paasmer)
  • Organic top-down approach: Starting with the analytics part and building out platform features from the top-down (e.g., IBM IoT Foundation)
  • Partnership approach: Striking alliances to offer the full package (e.g., GE Predix & PTC Thingworx)
  • M&A approach: Targeted acquisitions (e.g., Amazon – 2lemetry) or contenders performing strategic mergers (e.g., Nokia & Alcatel-Lucent)

Cloud & Enterprise Centric Architectures (Top-Down Approach)

The majority of IoT platform’s architecture is cloud-centric – built on the premise that ingestion, management, and processing of IoT data can be done in their market-dominating cloud offering. Most of the IoT platforms in the market that includes Microsoft, Google, AWS, IBM, SAP, SalesForce, Oracle, AT&T, Xievly, Bosch Software and PTC ThingWorx have defined their IoT Platform architecture as Cloud/Enterprise Centric Top-Down architecture.

  • That are the cloud or enterprise-centric architectures which does storage and compute on the data from the things over the cloud.
  • All of them provide SDKs that run on the gateway which can run Windows or Linux operating systems.
  • The gateway hardware could range from an array of Intel and ARM architecture based boards.


  • Edge side of the solution can remain as an abstract and flexible. Clients can design this the way they want.
  • The business model built heavily on cloud and analytics based subscription. Clients are charged based on their cloud usage.
  • Technology centralized on the cloud and provides additional data monetization opportunity over a period of time.


  • Edge side of the solution is critical and most businesses lack the capability to design the edge side as they are complex due to a variety of options to choose.
  • The business model is based on a pricing model for cloud and analytics subscription. Clients often pay less in the first year and their cost builds up in subsequent years.
  • Security and ownership of the data is a major issue in adoption. Often clients are concerned about data monetization opportunity for others to their data.
  • Migration of data from one cloud provider to another provider at a later point in time. This is often mitigated by defining an architecture that has a data intermediary layer. This again increases the cost of IoT implementation.

Gateway Centric Architectures (Bottom-Up Approach)

A limited number of IoT platform’s architecture is gateway centric built on the premise that edge-processing can save huge costs to clients. Since these platforms are bottom up they are heavily dependent on gateway hardware and focus fine tuning/filtering the data being collected from sensors. Ayla Networks, Solair & Dell provide their own gateway hardware to run their gateway software. Paasmer provides gateway choices from array vendors like Intel, Qualcomm, Mediatek, Element14 for the hardware with Edge operating system running on any of these hardware. Most platform’s here have taken a time to build their Bottom-Up stack over a period of time.

For many companies, where data storage and network bandwidth account for significant operational costs, this edge-processing approach can be hugely beneficial. By applying some level of intelligence to the edge of the gateway or device, companies can effectively filter the enormous volume of data generated to only relay business-critical, actionable data items to a cloud.

Organizations are struggling to make the best decisions regarding the data volume and complexity created by the vast numbers of sensors, embedded systems, and connected devices now on the network. As more of the data is processed in real time at the edge of the network, the gateway becomes the spam filter for IoT.


It removes the need for cost and complexity to existing on the things and places these on the gateway.

  • Gateways can act as smarter portals to the Internet.
  • A capable gateway can act as the connector hub for many things that may use different data standards and wireless protocols.
  • A gateway-centric architecture is very convenient for retrofitting machines, so they become IoT-connected.


  • It requires an extra “tier” (that is, the gateway) to communicate with the Internet.

Is there a case of Hybrid IoT platform architectures?

A reference case study was done by David Floyer this year on a remote wind-farm with security cameras and other sensors give a perspective and strong case for hybrid IoT platform architecture provides a strong cost advantage for the long term.

The study compares the 3-year management & processing costs of a cloud-only solution using AWS’s IoT services compared with an Edge + cloud solution using a Pivot3 Server SAN with an Open Source Time-series Database together with AWS IoT services. With a distance of 200 miles between the wind-farm and the cloud, and with an assumed 95% reduction in traffic from using the edge computing capabilities, the total cost is reduced from about $81,000 to $29,000 over 3 years. The cost of Edge + Cloud is about 1/3 the cost of a Cloud-only approach.


The advantages for managing the sensors and video streams using a cloud-only model include:

  • Faster initial programming
  • Faster initial testing
  • Lower cloud acquisition cost of hardware
  • No maintenance of local “Edge Computing”
  • Better integration of data with other non-connected data streams (e.g., comparison of faces with “suspect” database in the same cloud)
  • Better initial availability of data about sensors across different sites (value to sensor manufacturers).

This cloud-only model works well for single sensor systems in multiple different locations, where there are low data rates and already existing communication capabilities. An example is the Google NEST system for managing home heating.

The advantages for managing the sensors and video streams using an Edge computing plus cloud model include:

  • Much lower bandwidth requirements
  • Significantly lower overall costs
  • Greater availability from local automation and local autonomy
  • Better advanced real-time functionality from integration of local sensors
  • Easier to communicated to multiple clouds (e.g., comparison of faces using a different SaaS cloud(s))
  • Ability to use a lower-cost consumer commodity ecosystem with sensors based on current consumer mobile management of sensors
  • Earlier adoption of new sensors from the consumer mobile commodity ecosystem
  • Earlier adoption of new sensors with much higher data rates
  • Less complex and real-time local management of sensors (resetting, managing drift, etc.)
  • Less complex ability to test and manage local sensors
  • Higher M2M functionality based on lower latencies

The bottom line is that the cloud-only approach is likely to allow faster initial deployment with initial deployments of sensors with limited data rates. However, this approach would require a complete replacement of most of the cloud-only application programming by a cloud service that supports Edge computing.


As a result of this research and other work, IoT systems will be safer, more reliable, lower cost and more functional using an Edge computing plus Cloud (private or public) approach. Ours advise to all senior management responsible for IoT implementations is to assume that an Edge plus cloud architecture will be required, and to ensure that IoT RFPs mandate vendors to provide a robust Edge/Cloud architecture for private and public clouds.

IoT- Adoption

IoT Adoption – Ambitious growth with Formidable Technical Challenge – How PAASMER fits in?


Chandramouli Srinivasan

A recent Gartner survey provided key insights and recommendations on IoT adoption. We recently did an exercise to map these key findings and recommendations to our IoT Platform of A Service – PAASMER.  We have highlighted the points significantly addressed by PAASMER in block letters below. PAASMER – Being a Gateway/Cloud centric architecture addresses the highlighted area in a comprehensive manner by design.

As stated in PAASMER press coverage on Raconteur online – PAASMER scores extremely high over other existing architectures by being most flexible and scalable.

Gartner Key Findings

  • The number of IoT projects per organization is surprisingly high; companies that have implemented IoT have, on average, 6.8 different IoT projects, and the number of projects is expected to rise to 11.5 within three years.
  • Heavy (asset-oriented) industries are focused on internal benefits (for example, asset optimization) and plan to implement about twice as many projects (16.3 versus 8.9) as companies in light (service-oriented) industries, which are more focused on external benefits (for example, new revenue sources).
  • Fifty-one percent and 43% of survey respondents identified cybersecurity and integration, respectively, as their top two technical challenges for IoT projects.
  • More than one-third (38%) of respondents that have already implemented or are planning to implement IoT are planning to use an IoT platform for their next IoT project.