aquaponics-hydroponics-10

Transforming Hydroponics and Aquaponics farming Using Internet of Things

ManagementTeamMouli1

Kavitha Gopalan

With the growth in urban population, the need for more space seems perpetual. Traditional farming techniques are known for the need of large lands and the enormous amount of water. So the need for revolutionary farming techniques which occupies lesser space, consume lesser water and can give larger produce have led to the popularity of farming methods like hydroponics and aquaponics.

Hydroponic farming is a system of growing plants without soil using nutrient-laden solution to deliver nourishment directly to the roots of the plants. In hydroponic farming, the idea is to create a controlled environment for the plants with the right level of temperature, moisture, CO2, pH, water level and nutrients and supplying this solution directly to the plant’s roots. This method of creating an optimal environment for plants helps to increase the productivity by 3 folds. It also has other benefits like the re-use of the nutrient solution, reduces the amount of water used for farming by recycling, reduced fertilizer usage and requires lesser space.

Aquaponics is a system which uses aquaculture with hydroponics. In an aquaponics system, water from an aquaculture system is fed to a hydroponics system where the by-products are broken down by nitrifying bacteria initially into nitrites and subsequently into nitrates, which are utilized by the plants as nutrients, and the water is then recirculated back to the aquaculture system.

While these new techniques promise great results, it has certain inherent challenges which inhibit its widespread adoption.

The biggest hurdle for its adoption is the maintenance of the system. It could be time-consuming and be challenging to understand and constantly monitor the hydroponic or aquaponic systems.

Setting up these systems could be a mammoth task, the number of sensors to be installed, the triggers and the parameter configuring could be time-consuming.

It also requires constant monitoring of the sensors and the system. A hydroponic farm must be regularly attended to by a farmer, to know if there is any blockage in the drainage system, to understand if any system failure/power failure if the pump is on/off. If they must set-up multiple farms then scalability becomes an issue.

IOT will be a key problem solver for hydroponics and aquaponics systems with its ability to connect various sensors in the field to cloud and allowing it to be monitored and controlled from anywhere.

The Union of Internet of Things and hydroponic farming will be the future of demystifying the hydroponic farming and making it easier for adoption.

The internet of things will bring in features like automation, remote monitoring and control and build intelligence into the hydroponic farming system. This helps to prevent the need for the human presence in the farm every time and allows efficient monitoring and control of the farm from a remote location.

Sensors mounted in the farm could be used for monitoring CO2, air current, lighting, fertilizer flow, and the pH of the soil. The readings from these sensors are then analyzed in cloud systems. These readings are monitored continuously and tuned if there is any change in environment. Immediate alerts of the status and action will result in increased yield.

Blockchain_paasmer_paltform

Basic concepts in a Blockchain transaction

ManagementTeamMouli1

Chandramouli Srinivasan

In this blog, Demir talks about the basic terms used in Blockchain like Hashing, Decentralization, Digital Signature, Share Crypto currency, Minors (Agents), Blockchain (The Ledger).

Using Blockchain technology means

  1. All transaction is made over the Internet using P2P communication, thus removing the need for a central authority.
  2. Users can perform anonymous transactions by utilizing asynchronous cryptography and they are identified only by their private key/public key combination.
  3. You have implemented a validated global ledger of all transactions that has been safely copied to every peer in the network.

These decentralized technology fundamentals can be leveraged by any centralized technology currently being used like IoT, Financial systems, insurance systems etc. The increase in computing power requirement for Blockchain is a potential issue for Blockchain implementations. However, there are many types of researchers underway that could change the way a commercial and viable implementation of Blockchain occurs.

More on this blog from Demir here: https://www.toptal.com/bitcoin/cryptocurrency-for-dummies-bitcoin-and-beyond

Hybride_internet of things_platform

Hybrid IOT: The path forward for Industrial IOT

Sridhar krishnan

Sridhar krishnan

IIOT for manufacturing efficiency

The Industrial Internet of Things can help the manufacturing industries to transform to a smart industry. It enables them to collect data on machines, manufacturing process, the products produced and the quality of the products from the systems like mechatronics, embedded systems, and sensor hardware network. IIOT offers analytical applications to extract information from the raw data collected from various systems. The information helps the industries to improve the efficiency of the manufacturing process that will result in improve their productivity with optimized cost and improved quality, implement automation and predictive maintenance to avoid breakdowns.

IIOT_Manufacturing

Challenges with mix of legacy and modern systems

The challenges and complexities of industries in implementing IIOT applications are various kinds of machines in the industry both legacy and modern. Most of the legacy machines have older sensors, controllers and proprietary systems, whereas the modern manufacturing equipment offers a wide selection of connectivity options, a whole range of data feeds and integrates data into modern data analytics software. The industry is working on to build and implement standard protocols, compatible interfaces and architectures to achieve full interoperability. But bringing old machines into IIOT is continue to be challenging as they require retrofitting of sensors, connectivity and simple compute endpoints to generate any kind of meaningful data at all.

Edge devices can solve the problem

The Edge or Gateway IIOT device which can act as a bridge between the data generating endpoints and IIOT cloud applications can solve the problem of connecting older sensors, controllers and proprietary system by custom implementations.The different kinds of capabilities can be added in the Edge devices to access different kinds of machines and sensors both legacy and modern. These devices can be deployed and IIOT applications can be provisioned to implement machine to machine communications and to connect with IIOT management platform.

power-of-IoT-Edge3-750x400

Hybrid IIOT development platform for Edge device development and management

We have a challenge in developing different kinds of edge devices to connect both older and modern machines with IIOT management platform to build a complete IIOT implementation for a manufacturing industry.

A hybrid IIOT platform can solve this challenge by offering the different kinds of Edge device development kits both in-premises private cloud with industry-specific support to develop and manage the edge devices for older machines and in public cloud with open standard support to develop and manage the edge devices for modern machines. So, A Hybrid IIOT development and management platform can solve the challenges in implementing a complete IIOT solution for industries.

Home automation and HVAC control_paasmer platform

Home Automation and HVAC Control

ManagementTeamMouli1

Srinidhi Murthy

The Internet of Things is set to disrupt the way we live and work, but for now, let’s focus on the “live” portion of that statement. Smart homes filled with connected products are loaded with possibilities to make our lives easier, more convenient, and more comfortable.

Imagine that you’re driving home on a hot summer day. But rather than turning the air conditioner on when you get home and wait for your house to cool, you simply use your smartphone when you leave your office to tell your smart thermostat to lower the temperature.

Or imagine that you’re cooking dinner, and you ask the voice assistant to read you today’s biggest news stories so that you can focus on making your kid’s favorite lasagne. There is no shortage of possibilities for smart home IoT devices, and home automation seems to be the wave of the future.

Experts estimate that the number of smart home devices shipped will grow from 83 million in 2015 to 193 million in 2020. This includes all smart appliances (washers, dryers, refrigerators, etc.), smart home safety and security systems (sensors, monitors, cameras, and alarm systems), and smart home energy equipment, like smart thermostats and smart lighting.

There are many benefits of home/building Automation which are listed below.

  • Security: Motion sensors
  • Efficiency: Automatic switch off when not in use.
  • Convenience: Control everything from your fingertips.
  • Savings: You save money with an efficient Home automation system.

The first and most obvious benefit to smart homes is a convenience, as more connected devices can handle more operations (lighting, temperature, etc.) and free up the resident to perform other tasks.

As with all shifts in technology, changes will happen in the ways we live and do business. With the actions being taken for more energy efficiency in construction and managing of buildings there is a big potential through Internet of Things. HVAC systems that can make their own intelligent decisions based on presence, weather and lots of other indicators have a great potential to cut energy use and cost.

We are also certain that new business models will emerge. HVAC systems using IoT will be able to predict situations from collected data and have automated alarms for service and maintenance that can facilitate new services.

Paasmer:

Mobodexter’s PAASMER provided the complete set of components to build this solution from End to End satisfying all the needs of the client in the shortest possible time frame.

Here we explain how PAASMER has been used to connect a traditional HVAC system using a custom built IR blaster to the Paasmer IoT platform and how to control the same remotely.

Paasmer_HVAC

The solution has 4 modules, the Hardware, the Misty OS, the Paasmer IoT Platform and the App. We shall look at each of them below.

Gateway Hardware:
The Gateway Hardware consists of Network MCU boards with an IR Receiver and an IR transmitter connected to it. The Firmware that runs on the Network MCU is responsible for connecting to the Paasmer IoT Platform and ability to send and receive data from the Paasmer IoT platform.

It is also responsible for decoding the correct pattern to be sent via the IR transmitter and recording the correct pattern from the IR receiver.

Misty OS:

Misty OS is designed to be flexible, modular and gateway platform agnostic. The core functionality of the OS, Connectivity, H/W interface and middleware component are built into Misty OS. The gateway has interfaces for IR Transmitter and an IR receiver

It operates in two modes, Learning, and Transmits.

In Learning mode, the Hardware learns all the new IR codes that are needed for a particular device and stores the data on the Paasmer IoT Platform specific to the user. The learning mode can be enabled from the App and has options to choose the device type and device subtype. Once all the buttons of the remote have been learned it is ready to work.

In Transmit mode, messages are received from the App via the Paasmer IoT platform inform the Hardware to blast out the appropriate IR signature for the button pressed in the App. This IR signal is blasted across and very wide range using duplicate IR transmitters to cover an almost 360-degree range to control the HVAC system.

Paasmer IoT Platform:

Paasmer is a one stop shop for connecting all your devices to the internet and read data from them as well as control them. The Paasmer IoT Platform hosts the message broker, the necessary business logic, data store and all the necessary interconnections between them. It provides a platform onto which all Gateway HW devices, mobile phones, websites can be interconnected.

App:

The App connects to the Paasmer IoT Platform and based on the user login details and displays the data of the devices that are available for control. The user can select the appropriate device and control the device using the buttons on his screen. These button clicks are translated to the respective messages which are published by the Paasmer IoT Platform.

Paasmer_HVAC_1

In the current scenario a user wants to switch off the HVAC, so he selects the HVAC and then switches it off. These switches off messages are published to the broker on a particular topic. The Gateway Hardware is subscribed to this particular topic and hence receives the message.

The Gateway Hardware then decodes the message and immediately blasts the respective IR signature to turn off the AC.

Demystifying the Blockchain technology_paasmer_platfrorm

Demystifying the Blockchain Technology

ManagementTeamMouli1

Chandramouli Srinivasan

Blockchain promises to produce a shift in the current computing paradigm because it has the potential to become the infrastructure catalyst for the creation of decentralized applications. The Blockchain is being seen as the next-step evolution from distributed computing architectural constructs, to a global database of data and interfaces, integrating all kinds of machines and sources of data.

Four underlying concepts in Blockchain are:

  • Blockchain.
  • Decentralized databases applications consensus.
  • Smart contracts.
  • Proof of Stake(PoS).

1.Blockchain

As we all know blockchain technology started with the bitcoin. Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer electronic payments system, also known as a cryptocurrency, that allows people to make instant, anonymous transactions online.

The unique characteristic of bitcoin is that it records every single transaction made on its network in a public record. This is known as the “blockchain”. A new blockchain is created every ten minutes. That blockchain is afterward shared throughout the network. The chain is constantly growing because each completed “blocks” is added to the public ledger. There are an infinite number of blocks on the blockchain because as soon as one block gets completed, another is automatically generated.

2. Decentralized Databases Applications Consensus

Blockchain’s potential for the development of decentralized database applications consensus is based on the unique characteristics of the technology, as outlined previously.

A decentralized scheme, on which the bitcoin protocol is based, transfers authority and trust to a decentralized virtual network and enables its nodes to continuously and sequentially record transactions on a public “block” creating a unique “chain”: this is the inception and keywords genesis for blockchain.

3. Smart contracts

A scaled blockchain is something that starts proving a new global (somehow still science fiction) ecosystem. For this, the smart contracts are the building blocks for decentralized applications.

Smart contracts are contracts whose terms are recorded in a computer language instead of legal language. Smart contracts can be automatically executed by a computing system, such as a suitably distributed ledger system.

4. Proof of stake

Proof of stake (PoS) is a method by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. While the proof of work (PoS) method asks users to repeatedly run hashing algorithms or other client puzzles to validate electronic transactions, proof-of-stake asks users to prove ownership of a certain amount of currency (their “stake” in the currency). Peercoin was the first cryptocurrency to launch using proof-of-Stake. With Proof of stake, the probability of mining a block depends on the work done by the miner (e.g. CPU/GPU cycles spent checking hashes).

In this Toptal blog by Nermin as few more basic concepts around the Bitcoin – Crypto currency is covered https://www.toptal.com/bitcoin/blockchain-technology-powering-bitcoin

iot2

Naturalizing IOT through standardization

ManagementTeamMouli1

Kavitha Gopalan

Internet of Things is one of fast growing technology in the recent years. It’s expected that the growth of connected things will be around 50 billion by 2020. Every industry vertical has signed itself into embracing IOT either to create cutting edge products or for optimizing the resource and improve efficiency. As IOT growth explodes there are few challenges that are becoming key road blocks for a wider adoption of IOT. The two of the challenges that stands out are the security and Standardization.

Like any new growing technology, standardization is important for IOT. Standardization will allow devices to interoperable in IOT and allow seamless integration between various verticals. Several attempts have been made to standardize IOT, new alliances and consortiums have been formed but there is yet no single winner though many have shown promises for becoming one.

Why is standardizing IOT difficult?

The main reason for the complexity of IOT standardization is the fragmented nature of its adoption base. IOT is a global phenomenon and it has expanded its roots to all sectors of life- Factories, Healthcare, transportation, utilities, home. The standards and protocol used for one vertical may not scale well for the other. For example, a smart home device may be managed with the wireless protocol such as Zigbee or WiFi. But when IOT is used for an M2M application Zigbee or WiFi may not be the right approach we need to look at cellular communication protocols.

Similarly, each layer of the IOT architecture could vary depending on which industry its used for. The way an industrial application handles data may be different from the way the home device handles it. So arriving at the common standard which is agreeable to all has been difficult.

Differences in IOT spring from each layer of the architecture. Each vendor/manufacturer use the approach which easily adaptable to their industry segment.

Where are we now?

Z-wave and Zigbee were the top standards used by several smart home manufacturers in the beginning. But they could not establish themselves as the defacto standard for IOT. Then we had many more communication protocols that emerged as the one that could serve the needs of IOT, there are around 12+ protocols now available for IOT, Bluetooth, Zigbee, Zwave, EnOcean, NFC, WiFI, LPWAN, NB-IOT, weightless, LoRA, LTE, Cellular being some of them.

The differences are just not in the communication layer.Different standards are available for data transport in IOT – MQTT, CoAP, REST, SOAP, Websocket.

Many consortium and alliance have been formed to standardize IOT. Some of the as listed below

  • The Open Interconnect Consortium has come out with their IOTvity standards
  • AllSeen Alliance has their ALLJoyn standard.
  • THread group has the thread standard.
  • ZigBee Alliance has their Zigbee standard.
  • Z Wave alliance.
  • Industrial Internet Consortium.

The goal of these consortiums is to find a common ground /standard that every vendor manufacturer can follow while implementing IOT. But unfortunately they haven’t been able to agree on the terms But currently, no one has emerged as the leader in setting the standards. Disagreement in standards, licensing has been the reason for no clear winner. Which standard will emerge as a leader will be based on which is easily adaptable by manufacturers.

Right now every vendor puts together the pieces that works best for their application without much thought on the standards. But if IOT has to mature a common standard must emerge which would allow Interoperability of various devices and can scale to different industry verticals seamlessly. Whether this is possible or not depends on how much collaboration happens between this different consortium.

smartthings_2

Is Node Red the key to unlocking the potential of Internet of Things

ManagementTeamMouli1

Kavitha Gopalan

IOT is in forefront of all technology discussion. A lot of new tools, platforms, and product evolve every day to meet the growing needs of the IOT market.

Developing IOT applications can be a daunting task. There are so many pieces to be glued together for the IOT product or solution from sensors, gateways, cloud, middleware, analytics and so on and not to mention the task of understanding the various application development frameworks and standards that come with it.

IBM’s open source project Node Red is intended to reduced the software complexity of building IOT project and help in the rapid development of applications.

Node Red is a powerful open source visual tool used for building IOT applications. It revolves around the concept of wiring together the different pieces of blocks to create the functionality. It has multiple pre-built code blocks known as “Node” which can be called to perform a task. For example, if you want to turn on your LED bulb with a twitter hashtag #Led you can simply connect the twitter node, trigger node, and your bulb.Node red is a flow-based programming tool where series of nodes represents events and trigger based on the event can be programmed.

Programming Visually With Node-RED: Wiring Up The Internet Of Things With Ease written by Jesus Dario Rivera from Toptal gives a very good introduction into using Node red to create smart home application

He writes

“To demonstrate how Node-RED fits into the realm of Internet of Things, let us build an application to change the color of a smart bulb. Not everyone may have the same smart lighting system at their disposal, but there is nothing to worry about, as you can find the appropriate Node-RED module from the official flow repository. However, to make things even easier let us go for something smarter”
Read mode here https://www.toptal.com/nodejs/programming-visually-with-node-red

Also, read PAASMER’s blog on How to connect devices to AWS IOT in this blog
http://blogs.paasmer.co/series-blogs-connect-esp-8266-nodemcu-aws-iot/

iot-and-security-challenges

Real State of IoT and the Security challenges

ManagementTeamMouli1

Chandramouli Srinivasan

In a recent article by our friend Nermin at Toptal says “The Internet of Things (IoT) has been an industry buzzword for years, but sluggish development and limited commercialization have led some industry watchers to start calling it the “Internet of NoThings”. Double puns aside, IoT development is in trouble. Aside from spawning geeky jokes unfit for most social occasions, the hype did not help; and, in fact, I believe it actually caused a lot more harm than good. There are a few problems with IoT, but all the positive coverage and baseless hype are one we could do without. The upside of generating more attention is clear: more investment, more VC funding, more consumer interest”

He also says the top two challenges that continue to haunt IoT as “1) Security – Just not the vulnerable devices that get hacked but also the misuse of the data collected from devices. 2) Hardware pain points – Security needs to be built from hardware and that comes at an additional cost”

While the concerns are genuine on security, we have been talking to a few IoT device manufacturers on the need to increase their budget for hardware and software to secure the devices they use or sell. Most of these cases, we still a lot of reluctance to implement additional security at an additional cost on the consumer side while enterprises are willing to secure the devices at an additional cost. Also the new software paradigms of “IoT on ToR” and “IoT on BlockChain” are also starting to get traction and they also are going to come at additional cost. It appears like it will take many more massive security attacks like Anti-DDoS to shift the mindset to put security first in IoT product designs. The questions remain as “Are we willing to pay the price for what?”

Read full article from Nermin in this link: https://www.toptal.com/it/are-we-creating-an-insecure-internet-of-things

Also check out our article on “IoT on BlockChain” in this link: http://blogs.paasmer.co/a-marriage-made-in-heaven-iot-blockchain/

lpwan-iot

The Choice of IOT network – LPWAN leading the way?

ManagementTeamMouli1

Kavitha Gopalan

IOT is the next technology transition where devices allow us to sense, control and manage the devices by making them smarter and connecting them through an intelligent network.

If you look at the building blocks of IoT there are four main blocks 1) Sensors or things or Edge as you may call it 2) The Local Network; this can include a gateway, which translates proprietary communication protocols to Internet Protocol 3) Internet 4) Back-end services.

The local network or the network that connects the “things” and places them on the internet is what we will focus today. Choosing the right communication technology is crucial to the success of building an efficient IOT system.

There are many choices available like cellular, Wi-Fi, ZigBee, Z-Wave, En-Ocean, 6LoWPAN and LPWAN. Most of these technologies except cellular and LPWAN are mostly suited for short range communication typically an indoor kind of application. IOT connects millions of sensors to the internet. For connecting these devices to the internet and to be able to control and manage from anywhere would require us to use either cellular or LPWAN.

Here is a simple comparison of various IOT networks available and their distinctive features.

Technology3GLTEWiFiZigbee6LoWPANLPWAN
Long RangeYesYesNoNoLimited 1.5KmYes
Tx Current Consumption500-1000mA600-1100mA19-400mA34mA35mA20-70mA
Operating Battery Life2-4 hours2-3 hours2-8 hours60 hoursVariable10 to 20 years
Module Cost$35-$50$40-$80$5-$8$6-$12$3$2-$5

Long Range, Low power consumption, long battery life and low cost are the key factors which make LPWAN ideal network of choice for IOT. Let’s dig a bit deeper into this.

In a typical IOT implementation, there could be multiple sensors which could be sensing and transmitting the data. These are readings like the temperature or moisture level etc. which are the short and simple message. For examples the Sensors in the factory floor sending data or sensors in the crop field sending the moisture level or location information send by fleets.

Using cellular for transmitting these simple message is overkill. It consumes more power and it is going to be costly. Cellular connections for streaming video, games, and conversation require relatively huge bandwidth compared to the simple status reports that will make up the bulk of Internet of Things transmissions.

The other challenge in an IOT application is the power consumption. LPWAN consumes extremely low power and can operate for years on a battery.

LPWAN provides long range communication, consumes low power and costs very less compared to a cellular network. Many service providers are already considering LPWAN.

What is LPWAN?

LPWAN stands for Low Power Wide Area Network. Long Range, Low Power, and Low data throughput are the key characteristics of LPWAN. LPWAN sits in a sweet spot of IOT – Long range and Low bandwidth.

lpwan_iot_network

Some of the characteristics of LPWAN

SpectrumUnlicensed <1GHz, 2.4GHz
Long Range10s Km
Battery LifeUpto 20 years
Low BandwidthUpto 100Kbit/s
Low Chip cost<$5
Low subscription Costs<$10
LatencyUpto Mins

LPWAN typical use cases involve long range communications even in dense urban areas or Remote application requiring long battery life. Examples would include Smart city, smart lighting, smart metering, smart factory, Smart grid, Smart agriculture.

There are multiple long range low power networks evolving like SIGFOX, LoRA, WAVIOT. Ingenu, weightless-N.

LoRA and Sigfox are in the top of LPWAN lists with good hardware availability and maturity. Both companies have different technologies and business model but their goal is to make more and more mobile network operators to adopt their technology.And the comparison between them are for another blog.

For now, it looks like LPWAN will be leading the way for IOT networks but if 5G comes with a bang to take IOT head on then the table could turn. Only time will tell!

iot_smart_city

Peek into How Smart Cities are Shaping across the Globe

ManagementTeamMouli1

Kavitha Gopalan

Smart City has become more than a buzzword in the recent time, Government and city officials are looking for ways to use the concept of smart cities projects for resolving the challenges faced by cities. According to various market research, Smart city market size will grow to around $1.4 trillion by the year 2020 which is quite significant.

It’s difficult to accurately define what is a smart city. The idea is to make a city “smart” and efficient to improve the living condition of its citizens and propelling itself for a prosperous growth. It’s a vision in which the challenges in the cities like environment, economic, demographic and social are overcome by using digital technology. A Smart City could help in cities betterment through

  • Efficiency improvement – prevent wastage.
  • Economic impact like reduce cost, increase revenue.
  • Environmental impact like reduced CO2 emission, pollution reduce the wastage of resources like electricity, water.
  • Social inclusiveness – providing open data to the public to help then in the decision and interacting with city officials.
  • City attraction.

The growth of Internet of things and AI will drive the adoption of smart cities quicker. Internet of Things allows the devices to be interconnected and allows them to communicate their status and data to others. This allows various services in the City to be interlinked and transforming them into a smart city

A smart city will have interlinked city services like trans portion, schools, libraries, transportation systems, hospitals, power plants, water supply networks, waste management, law enforcement, others. By interlinking the information from various city services the inefficiencies and challenges faced by the city could be mitigated.

A smart city should have implemented features like Smart Grid, Smart Traffic management, Smart parking, Smart street light management, Smart natural resource utilization.

Some of the smart City initiatives include

Smart Traffic management: The sensor data from the streets streamed live could transmit the status of traffic on streets and connecting this data to the transportation system could divert the traffic to a less congested route. This could also be interlinked to the home assistance device like Alexa to inform citizen on the status.

Other similar application would be a smart parking system. Here the parking spaces fitted with sensors could transmit the status of occupancy and interlinking it to the various parking spaces in the city could allow the citizen to find the nearest parking space to their destination through a mobile app.

Smart waste management in which the waste disposal happens in an efficient way and helps reduce the overall cost. Sensors fitted in a garbage can signal when they are full and waste disposal can be initiated. This helps in reducing the logistics management of the vehicle to only when required and helps in reducing unnecessary movement of the vehicle in the road.

Smart Lighting which helps to reduce electricity consumption through the use of smart lighting control, like turning on only when the ambient light is low and turning off when not needed. Smart Lighting systems are frequently also equipped with central management software that monitors usage and leads to maintenance efficiency.

A new report released this year by Juniper research ranked Singapore as the smartest City followed by Barcelona, London, San Francisco and Oslo. They used some 40 metrics to evaluate covering technology, transport, energy, open data and economy higher weight age for transport and energy. Some of the smart city initiative by them includes

Singapore: sensors to track smoking in an unauthorized zone, open data from sensors and cameras to track traffic which public can view, smart traffic light, smart parking, Singapore encourages the use of public transportation and has reduced the number of private vehicle on road.

Barcelona: smart traffic management system, smart parking technology, smart streetlights, and sensors for monitoring air quality and noise, smart grid pilot projects, smart meters, smart sensors for irrigation.

London: technology to help tackle congestion and make parking simpler and Smart transportation.

SFO: smart parking, smart urban development initiatives, smart transportation.

Oslo: reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, sensor network to help improve the care of sick, elderly patients, smart LED lighting and has launched a broad sensing network for monitoring traffic levels.

There are a lot of projects that could be done in a city which could deem itself propelling the city to being considered a “smart city”. But will there be a smart City “achieved” status? Probably no because there will always be room for improvement and it will be the ongoing process.